- A strong, persistent urge to urinate
- A burning sensation when urinating
- Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
- Urine that appears cloudy
- Urine that appears red, bright pink or cola-colored (a sign of blood in the urine)
- Strong-smelling urine
- Pelvic pain, in women
- Rectal pain, in men
- Being sexually active
- Using certain types of birth control
- Having urinary tract abnormalities
- Having blockages in the urinary tract
- Having a suppressed immune system
- Using a catheter to urinate
- Drink plenty of water to dilute urine and help flush out bacteria.
- Avoid drinks that may irritate bladder. Avoid coffee, alcohol, and soft drinks containing citrus juices and caffeine until infection has cleared. They can irritate bladder and tend to aggravate frequent or urgent need to urinate.
- Use a heating pad. Apply a warm, but not hot, heating pad to abdomen to minimize bladder pressure or discomfort.
- Wipe from front to back. Doing so after urinating and after a bowel movement helps prevent bacteria in the anal region from spreading to the vagina and urethra.
- Empty your bladder soon after intercourse. Also, drink a full glass of water to help flush bacteria.
- Avoid potentially irritating feminine products. Using deodorant sprays or other feminine products, such as douches and powders, in the genital area can irritate the urethra.